AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors
The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. In 1972, it was revised and issued as the second edition by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1985, the subsequent fourth edition was split into two volumes. Volume I provides air pollution emission factors for stationary point and area sources, and Volume II provides mobile source emission factors. Volume I is currently in its fifth edition and is available on the Internet. Volume II is no longer maintained as such, but roadway air dispersion models for estimating emissions from onroad vehicles and from offroad vehicles and mobile equipment are also available on the Internet.
In routine common usage, Volume I of the emission factor compilation is very often referred to as simply AP 42. Print copies of AP 42 are no longer available.
Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that attempts to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.
The equation for the estimation of emissions before emission reduction controls are applied is:
- E = A × EF
and for emissions after reduction controls are applied:
- E = A × EF × (1-ER/100)
|E||= emissions, in units of pollutant per unit of time|
|A||= activity rate, in units of weight, volume, distance or duration per unit of time|
|EF||= emission factor, in units of pollutant per unit of weight, volume, distance or duration)|
|ER||= overall emission reduction efficiency, in %|
Emission factors are used by atmospheric dispersion modelers and others to determine the amount of air pollutants being emitted from sources within industrial facilities.
Chapters in AP 42, Volume I, Fifth Edition
Chapter 1: External Combustion Sources
Chapter 11: Mineral Products Industry
Chapter 5, Section 5.1 "Petroleum Refining" discusses the air pollutant emissions from the equipment in the various refinery processing units as well as from the auxiliary steam-generating boilers, furnaces and engines, and Table 5.1.1 includes the pertinent emission factors. Table 5.1.2 includes the emission factors for the fugitive air pollutant emissions from the large wet cooling towers in refineries and from the oil/water separators used in treating refinery wastewater.
The fugitive air pollutant emission factors from relief valves, piping valves, open-ended piping lines or drains, piping flanges, sample connections, and seals on pump and compressor shafts are discussed and included the report EPA-458/R-95-017, "Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates" which is included in the Chapter 5 section of AP 42. That report includes the emission factors developed by the EPA for petroleum refineries and for the synthetic organic chemical industry (SOCMI).
In most cases, the emission factors in Chapter 5 are included for both uncontrolled conditions before emission reduction controls are implemented and controlled conditions after specified emission reduction methods are implemented.
Chapter 7 "Liquid Storage Tanks" is devoted to the methodology for calculating the emissions losses from the six basic tank designs used for organic liquid storage: fixed roof (vertical and horizontal), external floating roof, domed external (or covered) floating roof, internal floating roof, variable vapor space, and pressure (low and high). The methodology in Chapter 7 was developed by the American Petroleum Institute in collaboration with the EPA.
The EPA has developed a software program named "TANKS" which performs the Chapter 7 methodology for calculating emission losses from storage tanks. The program's installer file along with a user manual, and the source code are available on the Internet.
Chapters 5 and 7 discussed above are illustrative of the type of information contained in the other chapters of AP 42. It should also be noted that many of the fugitive emission factors in Chapter 5 and the emissions calculation methodology in Chapter 7 and the TANKS program also apply to many other industrial categories besides the petroleum industry.
Other sources of emission factors
General emission factors
- The Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Manual, Version 1.7, Oct 2010
- United Kingdom's emission factor database.
- London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2003, Emissions Estimation Methodology Manual February 2006
- 2005 Emission Inventory Guidebook (Developed and published by the European Environment Agency)
- Australian National Pollutant Inventory Emissions Estimation Technique Manuals.
- Fugitive emissions leaks from ethylene and other chemical plants.
Greenhouse gas emission factors
- Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (reference manual).
- Canadian GHG Inventory Methodologies.
- Sangea - American Petroleum Institute Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimation Methodologies.
- Mining Association Of Canada Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimation Methodologies.