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- Animal : A multicellular organism that feeds on other organisms, and is distinguished from plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms.
- Chordate : An animal who had a notochord — a stiff cord with nerve fibre bundles — somewhen during its life.
- Mammal : A warm-blooded animal with a backbone which also has hair, and produces milk to feed its young.
- Primate : A member of the biological order Primates, which includes prosimians (galagos, lorises, lemurs and tarsiers), monkeys, apes, and humans.
- Ape : Tail-less primates in Africa and Eurasia, e.g. humans, orang-utans and chimpanzees.
- Hominid : A reduction of the term Hominidae that refers to all of the fossil and living bipedal apes including the Australopithecines, fossil members of the genus Homo and living humans.
- Hominin : Primates in the Tribe Hominini which is a relatively recent classification under which it is proposed would fall all of the fossil and living bipedal apes including the Australopithecines, fossil members of the genus Homo and living humans. It is generally replacing the term hominid in the scientific literature.
- Kanzi : Male bonobo at the Great Ape Trust in Des Moines, Iowa, famous for his controversial and apparently exceptional cognitive and linguistic abilities (born 1980).
- Human and ape behavior : Hypothesising behavioural characteristics of early hominids by observing the behaviour of members of the family Pongidae.
- Mirror self-recognition : A psychological test used as an indicator for the capability of self-recognition in children, patients or non-human animals.
- Evolutionary biology : The study of the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time.
- Evolutionary linguistics : Branch of linguistics that concerns itself with how the human faculty of language evolved; multidisciplinary field involving neurolinguistics, cognitive science, anthropology and others.
- Evolutionary psychology : The comparative study of the nervous system and its relation to behaviour across species.
- Origin of music : The evolutionary background of the human capacity for music.
- Sue Savage-Rumbaugh : (b. 1946) American primatologist most famous for her work with two bonobos, Kanzi and Panbanisha, investigating their apparent use of language via lexigrams and computer-based keyboards.