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Diploid: Organism with a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled.
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- Allele : A specific sequence of a gene, and one of a pair in a diploid cell (one per chromosome).
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Fern : are a group of seedless vascular plants that make up the class Pteropsida, closely allied to horsetails and whisk ferns, also considered to be ferns, with which form the division Pterophyta, that evolved in the Devonian period comprising about 12,000 species.
- Fungus : A eukaryotic organism, classified into the kingdom Fungi, that is heterotrophic and digest their food externally, and may be a yeast, mold, or mushroom.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Natural selection : The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics
- Plant breeding : The purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes, such as food production, forestry, and horticulture.
- Sex-determination system : A biological process that determines the development of sexual gender.
- Transgenic plant : Plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell, from a different species.
- Wheat : Grass crop grown worldwide and used in making flour and fermentation for alcohol production.