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- Vincent K et al. (2011) Dysmenorrhoea is associated with central changes in otherwise healthy women. PAIN (In Press)
- From Abstract: Patients with chronic pain conditions demonstrate altered central processing of experimental noxious stimuli, dysfunction of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and reduced quality of life. Dysmenorrhoea is not considered a chronic pain condition, but is associated with enhanced behavioural responses to experimental noxious stimuli...Women with dysmenorrhoea reported increased pain to noxious stimulation of the arm and abdomen throughout the menstrual cycle; no menstrual cycle effect was observed in either group. During menstruation, deactivation of brain regions in response to noxious stimulation was observed in control women but not in women with dysmenorrhoea. Without background pain (ie, in nonmenstrual phases), activity in the entorhinal cortex appeared to mediate the increased responses in women with dysmenorrhoea. Mean cortisol was significantly lower in women with dysmenorrhoea and was negatively correlated with the duration of the symptom...Thus, many features of chronic pain conditions are also seen in women with dysmenorrhoea: specifically a reduction in quality of life, suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and alterations in the central processing of experimental noxious stimuli. These alterations persist when there is no background pain and occur in response to stimuli at a site distant from that of the clinical pain.
- Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Poindexter AN. (1995) Epidemiology of endometriosis among parous women. Obstet Gynecol 85:983-992.
- From Abstract: Over a 6-year period, 3384 multiparous [having borne more than one child] women underwent laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Endometriosis was detected in 126 patients (3.7%), who were consequently evaluated for severity of the disease. To conduct a case control study, 504 patients with no evidence of endometriosis were randomly selected from a group of women who underwent sterilization. Information obtained through physical examination and a self-administered questionnaire was studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Most endometriosis lesions were minimal. Factors associated with an increased risk for endometriosis included: advanced age ...Asian race long ...cycle length ...one live birth long duration of intrauterine device use ...and long duration of uninterrupted menstrual cycles... Present oral contraceptive use was protective for disease... The role of these factors varied among different disease locations (ovary, uterus and tubes, posterior broad ligaments and cul-de-sac), and depth (superficial or deep).
- Chatman DL, Ward AB. (1982) Endometriosis in adolescents. J Reprod Med 27:156.
- Missmer SA, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, et al. (2004) Incidence of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis by demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors. Am J Epidemiol 160:784.]