Occasionally, a sense of shared ethnic identity arises in a group of people who had not formerly identified as an ethnic group. The emergence of a new ethnic group, called ethnogenesis, might occur as a result of the establishment of a new social grouping (such as Nancie González describes for the Garifuna) or the emergence of a new form of common identity in an already existing social group (such as Matthew Restall describes for modern Mayas).
- Nancie L. González. 1988. Sojourners of the Caribbean: Ethnogenesis and Ethnohistory of the Garifuna. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. WorldCat listing: here.
- Matthew Restall. 2004. Maya Ethnogenesis. The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 9(1):64-89. DOI: 10.1525/jlca.2004.9.1.64