History of political thought/Timelines
The ancient world
495 BCE Pericles (495-429) - Athenian statesman and advocate of democracy
469 Socrates (469-384) - Athenian philosopher who is credited with laying the foundations of western philosophy; sentenced to death in Athens for heresy.
450 The Twelve Tables - the first recorded statement of Roman Law
428 Plato (428-347) Athenian philosopher, recorder of Socratic dialogue and critic of democracy
427 The Mytilene Debate - that led to the Athenian decision to execute all the men on the rebellious island of Mytilene
384 Aristotle (384-322) pupil of Plato, author of The Politics
106 BCE Cicero (106-43 BCE) statesman of the Roman republic, Stoic and opponent of dictatorship
313 Edict of Milan - established religious freedom in the Roman Empire.
354 CE Augustine of Hippo (354-430) Neoplatonist African Bishop and leading philosopher of the Roman Catholic Church; advocate of papal supremacy.
381 Council of Constantinople - that approved the Nicene Creed - the official statement of Christian belief
The middle ages
800s Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad) are compiled.
1453 The fall of Constantinople
1469 Machiavelli (1469-1527) Pragmatic Florentine political advisor, famous for his amoral approach to the exercise of authority.
1643 English Civil War  (1643-6) Armed conflict between supporters of the parliament and the monarchy, ending in the execution of King Charles I.
1645 The Levellers . English popular movement that agitated for religious toleration, reform of the law, free trade, an extended franchise, rights guaranteed under a written constitution and a government answerable to the people rather than to King or Parliament.
1688 Glorious Revolution The largely bloodless events in England which led to the deposition of King James II.
1689 The Bill of Rights English legislation that restricted the powers of the monarchy and established the rights of a free Parliament.
1712 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) French Enlightenment thinker. Author of The Social Contract.
1750 The Risorgimento] The movement for the liberation and unification of Italy that lasted until 1870.
1751 James Madison (1751-1836) American politician, political theorist and fourth President of the United States, Known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights." Advocate of "checks and balances to limit the powers of special interests.
1760 Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) founder of French Socialism.
1774 American Revolution The armed struggle that gave the United States independence from Britain.
1776 Declaration of Independence by the United States of America
1789 Storming of the Bastille and start of the French Revolution
1789 The Declaration of the Rights of Man is approved by the French National Assembly.
1791 The United States Bill of Rights. The first ten amendments to the constitution, the first of which guarantees freedom of religion, speech, press, and peaceable assembly.
The 19th century
1806 John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) English philosopher and politician. Advocate of utilitarianism and representative government. Proponent of the principle that society may restrict the liberty of individuals only to prevent harm to others.
1809 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
1818 Karl Marx (1818-1883)
1844 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) originator of the concept of "superman"
1848 Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) "The Karl Marx of Fascism".
1848 The Communist Manifesto
1864 The First International A meeting of European Socialists
1871 Paris Commune A short-lived Socialist city administration
The 20th and 21st centuries
1914 First World War (1914-1918)
1917 Russian Revolution
1922 The Permanent Court of International Justice (1922-1946) Provided arbitration of disputes between member countries of the League of Nations
1933 Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
1939 Second World War (1939-45)
1946 The Court of International Justice is set up to resolve legal disputes between member country and advise on legal questions referred to it.
1998 The Rome Statute sets up the International Criminal Court to prosecute genocide, war crimes and other crimes against humanity.
2000 United Nations resolution adopts specific Millennium Development Goals by 2015