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- Palestine (region): Area of the Middle East between Egypt, Syria and the Arabian Peninsula, fought over throughout history for its religious, political and economic significance; as the 'Holy Land', the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, and today including Israel and occupied territories.
- Occupied Territories: Those parts of Jordan (i.e., the West Bank and East Jerusalem) and Egypt (i.e., Gaza) that were occupied by the Israeli Defense Forces during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, and are now under the civil authority of the Palestinian Authority subject to Israeli military control; this specific term implies a belief that the Israeli actions are illegal, with which the State of Israel does not agree
- State of Palestine: Semi-recognised state proclaimed in 1988 which claims the Palestinian territories (the West Bank and the Gaza Strip), and Jerusalem as its capital; holds non-member observer status at the United Nations.
- Palestinian Authority: The elected government, not fully sovereign, of the Occupied Territories of Palestine
- Mandatory Palestine: Region west of the Jordan River formerly under the control of the Ottoman Empire, administered by the United Kingdom from 1920 until 1948 (also known as the 'British Mandate of/for Palestine').
- Israel: Country in the Middle East.
- State of Israel: Country established from the British Mandate of Palestine; declared independence in 1948.