Patient simulation

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In medical education, patient simulation is "the use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel."[1]

Unannounced standardized patients

Unannounced standardized patients have been validated by various methods.[2][3][4][5]

Physicians may detect unannounced standardized patients.[6]

The role of unannounced standardized patients has been systematically reviewed.[7]

Unannounced standardized patients have been used to evaluate the performance of physicians in practice.[8] However, the evidence base for the standards of care the physicians are compared to is not always clear.[9]


  1. Anonymous (2022), Patient simulation (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Weiner SJ, Schwartz A, Cyrus K, Binns-Calvey A, Weaver FM, Sharma G et al. (2012). "Unannounced Standardized Patient Assessment of the Roter Interaction Analysis System: The Challenge of Measuring Patient-Centered Communication.". J Gen Intern Med. DOI:10.1007/s11606-012-2221-3. PMID 22990681. Research Blogging.
  3. Peabody JW, Luck J, Glassman P, Dresselhaus TR, Lee M (2000). "Comparison of vignettes, standardized patients, and chart abstraction: a prospective validation study of 3 methods for measuring quality.". JAMA 283 (13): 1715-22. PMID 10755498. [e]
  4. Shirazi M, Sadeghi M, Emami A, Kashani AS, Parikh S, Alaeddini F et al. (2011). "Training and validation of standardized patients for unannounced assessment of physicians' management of depression.". Acad Psychiatry 35 (6): 382-7. DOI:10.1176/appi.ap.35.6.382. PMID 22193736. Research Blogging.
  5. Erby LA, Roter DL, Biesecker BB (2011). "Examination of standardized patient performance: accuracy and consistency of six standardized patients over time.". Patient Educ Couns 85 (2): 194-200. DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2010.10.005. PMID 21094590. PMC PMC3158971. Research Blogging.
  6. Franz CE, Epstein R, Miller KN, Brown A, Song J, Feldman M et al. (2006). "Caught in the act? Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of physician detection of unannounced standardized patients.". Health Serv Res 41 (6): 2290-302. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00560.x. PMID 17116121. PMC PMC1955318. Research Blogging.
  7. Rethans JJ, Gorter S, Bokken L, Morrison L (2007). "Unannounced standardised patients in real practice: a systematic literature review.". Med Educ 41 (6): 537-49. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02689.x. PMID 17518833. Research Blogging.
  8. Kravitz RL, Epstein RM, Feldman MD, Franz CE, Azari R, Wilkes MS et al. (2005). "Influence of patients' requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants: a randomized controlled trial.". JAMA 293 (16): 1995-2002. DOI:10.1001/jama.293.16.1995. PMID 15855433. PMC PMC3155410. Research Blogging.
  9. Krane NK, Anderson D, Lazarus CJ, Termini M, Bowdish B, Chauvin S et al. (2009). "Physician practice behavior and practice guidelines: using unannounced standardized patients to gather data.". J Gen Intern Med 24 (1): 53-6. DOI:10.1007/s11606-008-0826-3. PMID 18975037. PMC PMC2607496. Research Blogging.