Photosynthesis/Related Articles

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A list of Citizendium articles, and planned articles, about Photosynthesis.
See also changes related to Photosynthesis, or pages that link to Photosynthesis or to this page or whose text contains "Photosynthesis".

Parent topics

  • Metabolism [r]: The modification of chemical substances by living organisms. [e]
  • Chloroplast [r]: The green organelles found in many higher plant cells and protists. Internal thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place. [e]


  • Light-independent reactions [r]: Add brief definition or description
    • Calvin cycle [r]: A metabolic cycle, discovered by Melvin Calvin, that is responsible for the reduction of carbon dioxide to sugar in the stroma of chloroplasts. [e]
    • C4 carbon fixation [r]: A carbon fixation reaction that fixes carbon dioxide into the four carbon molecule oxaloacetate; usually found in the mesophyll cells of plants that use the Hatch-Slack pathway. [e]
    • Crassulacean acid metabolism [r]: (CAM) Typical in succulent plants and characterised by the ability to fix carbon dioxide to malate in the dark; this is then stored in the vacuole as malic acid until the following light period when it is converted to carbon dioxide for fixation by the Calvin cycle. [e]
    • Photorespiration [r]: A salvage pathway utilised to remove the products of Rubisco's oxygenase activity during photosynthesis; involves reactions in three organelles, the chloroplast, the peroxisome and the mitochondria. [e]
    • RuBisCO [r]: The enzyme Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; the most abundant protein on earth and required for the first step of the Calvin cycle to reduce carbon dioxide during carbon fixation. [e]
  • Oxygen [r]: A chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. [e]

Other related topics

  • Stroma [r]: The matrix of a plastid that contains the enzymes for carbon fixation and the organelles DNA; thylakoid membranes are surrounded by this matrix. [e]
  • Thylakoid [r]: A membrane inside plastids that is embedded with proteins and pigments required for the capture of photons, a process that is required to drive photosynthesis. [e]
    • Magnesium [r]: The metallic element that has atomic number 12 and belongs to alkaline earth metal group. [e]
  • Bioenergetics [r]: The science that investigates and describes the mechanisms whereby living systems capture energy from an external source, convert it into forms of energy that enable them perform the work required to drive the physico-chemical processes that sustain their viability, and the steps they take to perform that work.


  • Oxidative phosphorylation [r]: A process in which ATP is formed by coupling the transfer of electrons through a series of electron carriers to proton gradients across a biological membrane; most frequently associated mitochondria and their role in aerobic respiration. [e]