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A sustainable city, or eco-city, has fewer inputs (of energy, water, food etc) and fewer waste products (heat, air pollution, water pollution etc) than a less sustainable city. In this context, sustainability is a relative concept. One cannot say that one city is 'sustainable' and another city is 'non-sustainable' or 'unsustainable'. Cities can be made more sustainable by means of:
- green roofs
- green transport
- sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS
- energy conservation
- xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservation