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 Definition Surgical procedure that modifies the visible shape of the nose. [d] [e]
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 Workgroup category Health Sciences [Categories OK]
 Talk Archive none  English language variant Not specified

Alexander L. Ramirez, MD, Corey S. Maas, MD Chapter 73. Rhinoplasty. in Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery- editor, Anil K. Lalwani Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (McGraw Hill's Access Medicine)

Nasal reconstruction

Historical Flaps

McDowell F. The classic reprint. Ancient ear-lobe and rhinoplastic operations in India. [Historical Article. Journal Article] Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 43(5):515-22, 1969 May. UI: 4889413(From the Sushruta Samhita, c600 BC translated from the Sanskrit and published in Calcutta, 1907)

Mahabir RC. Son-Hing J. Tam AL. Vastardis AD. Ancient Indian civilization: ahead by a nose. [Historical Article. Journal Article] Journal of Investigative Surgery. 14(1):3-5, 2001 Jan-Feb. UI: 11297058

Snell GE. A history of rhinopasty. [Historical Article. Journal Article] Canadian Journal of Otolaryngology. 2(3):224-30, 1973. UI: 4598989

Furlan S. Mazzola RF. Alessandro Benedetti, a fifteenth century anatomist and surgeon: his role in the history of nasal reconstruction. [Biography. Historical Article. Journal Article] Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 96(3):739-43, 1995 Sep. UI: 7638303 (pedicled (?) forearm flap)

Prochno T. [Principles of rhinoplasty. THe "Indian" and "Italian" method]. [German] [English Abstract. Historical Article. Journal Article] HNO. 42(12):730-3, 1994 Dec. UI: 7844005(From abstract:"Since their introduction, adjacent flaps (Indian method) and distant flaps (Italian method) are still in use at the present time. Although India should be considered the cradle of rhinoplasty, further refinements must be credited to Italian surgeons who undoubtedly knew about the Indian method for rebuilding the nose.")

Beg MH. The Indian contribution to rhinoplasty. [Biography. Historical Article. Letter] Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 103(4):443, 1989 Apr. UI: 2654309

Nichter LS. Morgan RF. Nichter MA. The impact of Indian methods for total nasal reconstruction. [Historical Article. Journal Article] Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 10(4):635-47, 1983 Oct. UI: 6360479("The Indian art and science of total nasal reconstruction comprise the first chapter in the history of plastic surgery. Remarkably, centuries after their first use, the original Indian methods utilizing the cheek flap and median forehead flap for total rhinoplasty remain the basis for most reconstructive rhinoplastic procedures.")

Remensnyder JP. Bigelow ME. Goldwyn RM. Justinian II and Carmagnola: a Byzantine rhinoplasty?. [Biography. Historical Article. Journal Article] Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 63(1):19-25, 1979 Jan. UI: 372986 (Justinian,II the Byzantine Emperor was deposed after his first reign, had his tongue slit and his nose cut off. He regained power, and had a second reign-during which all artistic renderings show a nose. There is debate over whether this was a gold prosthetic nose, or whether he had reconstruction by the "Indian method", the media or paramedian forehead flap.)

Patterson TJ. Mr. Lucas and the B. L. letter (Colley Lyon Lucas). [Biography. Historical Article. Journal Article] Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 48(1):68-71, 1971 Jul. UI: 4934572

I do not have immediate access to textbooks, or many textbooks, but the ancient use of the paramedian forehead flap for total nasal reconstruction is mentioned by texts of Otolaryngology and Plastic Surgery that include a section on the History of Rhinoplasty - meaning many texts, most texts-if there is a history portion. What I'm getting at, is that this is a generally accepted fact within the field.Nancy Sculerati MD 14:40, 4 March 2007 (CST)