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- Ottoman Empire : An empire, informally the Turkish Empire, that dominated most of the Middle East from the 14th to early 20th century.
- Mustafa Kemal Atatürk : (1881 - 1938) Turkish statesman, president from 1923 to 1938, who modernized and secularized Turkey.
- Turkic languages : Language family of Asia and Europe.
- Turkic people : Add brief definition or description
- Atatürk's University Reforms : Add brief definition or description
- German Diaspora in Turkey : Add brief definition or description
- Higher education in the Ottoman Empire : Add brief definition or description
- Andreas Bertholan Schwarz : Add brief definition or description
- Ernst Eduard Hirsch : Add brief definition or description
- Fritz Neumark : Add brief definition or description
- Turkey and the Holocaust : Little-known Turkish efforts to save Jews from the Holocaust
- Kurd : A non-Arab ethnic and religious group, speaking Persian dialects, primarily of Sunni Muslims, concentrated in Iraq but with traditional territory in a Greater Kurdistan extending into Iran and Turkey; Iraqi Kurdistan is semi-autonomous within the State of Iraq
- Tajik : An ethnic group of Central Asia, culturally Persian and speaking the Dari dialect of Farsi; they are the dominant group of Tajikistan and the second largest ethnic group of Afghanistan
- Turkomen : Add brief definition or description
- Uighur : A Turkic ethnic group originally from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China.
- Uzbek : An ethnic group of Central Asia, speaking a Turkic language
- East Turkestan : Eastern part of greater Turkestan which encompasses the Uyghur homeland in present-day Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China
- Fran Burwell : Vice President and Director of Transatlantic Relations, specialist in U.S.-EU relations, Turkey and Russia; vice president of Atlantic Treaty Association
- Soner Cagaptay : Senior fellow and director of the Turkish Research Program, Washington Institute for Near East Policy; taught courses at Yale and Princeton on the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Europe; visiting professor at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service.