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- United Nations: An international organization that was founded in 1945 with the mission of preventing international war, protecting human rights, supporting social progress and justice, and helping with economic progress.
- World Heritage site: A place included in a list maintained by the World Heritage Centre of UNESCO with the aim of cataloguing sites of particular natural or cultural importance to the whole of mankind.
- Culture (social): UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2002) defined culture as "... the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or a social group..." that "encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs".
- Ecosystem: A space in which multiple biological species interact.
- Herat: Capital of Herat Province in western Afghanistan, bordering Iran and Turkmenistan; often considered the cultural capital of Afghanistan
- Indigenous knowledge system: Set of knowledge, skills and technologies existing and developed around specific conditions of indigenous populations and communities.
- Indigenous knowledge: Local-level accumulated knowledge that does not originate in academic or corporate research institutions, inherited in situ through tradition and culture.
- Nara (city): Japanese located in the Kansai region of Honshu island, capital of Nara prefecture and the former capital of Japan (710-784).
- Sustainable development: Pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations.