# Closure (topology)

Main Article
Discussion
Related Articles  [?]
Bibliography  [?]
In mathematics, the closure of a subset A of a topological space X is the set union of A and all its limit points in X. It is usually denoted by ${\displaystyle {\overline {A}}}$. Other equivalent definitions of the closure of A are as the smallest closed set in X containing A, or the intersection of all closed sets in X containing A.
• A set is contained in its closure, ${\displaystyle A\subseteq {\overline {A}}}$.
• The closure of a closed set F is just F itself, ${\displaystyle F={\overline {F}}}$.
• Closure is idempotent: ${\displaystyle {\overline {\overline {A}}}={\overline {A}}}$.
• Closure distributes over finite union: ${\displaystyle {\overline {A\cup B}}={\overline {A}}\cup {\overline {B}}}$.