# Closure (topology)

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In mathematics, the closure of a subset A of a topological space X is the set union of A and all its limit points in X. It is usually denoted by ${\displaystyle {\overline {A}}}$. Other equivalent definitions of the closure of A are as the smallest closed set in X containing A, or the intersection of all closed sets in X containing A.

## Properties

• A set is contained in its closure, ${\displaystyle A\subseteq {\overline {A}}}$.
• The closure of a closed set F is just F itself, ${\displaystyle F={\overline {F}}}$.
• Closure is idempotent: ${\displaystyle {\overline {\overline {A}}}={\overline {A}}}$.
• Closure distributes over finite union: ${\displaystyle {\overline {A\cup B}}={\overline {A}}\cup {\overline {B}}}$.
• The complement of the closure of a set in X is the interior of the complement of that set; the complement of the interior of a set in X is the closure of the complement of that set.
${\displaystyle (X-A)^{\circ }=X-{\overline {A}};~~{\overline {X-A}}=X-A^{\circ }.}$