Difference between revisions of "Stone"

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Building structures from '''stone''' is the foundation of [[masonry]].  Stone has been used in structures for thousands of years.  Although modern materials have become a dominant choice in the building and construction industry, stone still has a place for it's qualities of durability, beauty, and representation as an iconic material.
Building structures from '''stone''' is the foundation of [[masonry]].  Stone has been used in structures for thousands of years.  Although modern materials have become a dominant choice in the building and construction industry, stone still has a place for it's qualities of durability, beauty, and representation as an iconic material.


Stone can come in three naturallly different forms:
In [[geology]], the materials from which building stones are obtained are genrally termed [[rock (geology)|rocks]]. Rocks can come in three naturally different forms:


*Igneous stone comes from the cooling of magma, following a volcanic eruption or magma flows within the Earth's crust. Igneous stone is often hard and non-pourous.
*Igneous rocks comes from the cooling of magma, either at the earth's surface following a volcanic eruption or within earth's [[crust]]. Igneous rocks are often hard and non-porous.
*Sedimentary rock is relatively soft compared to other types of stone, and comes from deposits of erosion which settled into layers and became compressed over time. Sandstone and limestone are good examples of sedimentary rock.
*Sedimentary rocks are often relatively soft compared to other types of rocks. Most come from sediments produced by [[erosion]], which settled into layers, were compacted and lithified over time. An example of this kind of rocks is [[sandstone]]. [[Limestone]]s instead formed by the precipitation of carbonates from [[seawater]].
*Metamorphic rock is also hard and non-pourous but comes from rock that was changed by compression, heat, or other geological factors. Marble is a distinct example of metamorphic rock; it most samples of marble you can see the variations and flaws that represent the change.
*Metamorphic rocks are also often hard and non-porous but come from rocks that ware changed by pressure or heat at the contact with bodies of magma or deep in the crust. [[Marble]] is a distinct example of metamorphic rock, derived from the metamorphism of a limestone; in marbles, you can often see veins and folded dark horizons that formed during the plastic deformation of the parent limestone.  


These different types of stone lend themselves to different applications. For example, because sedimentary rock is softer than igneous or metamorphic stone, it would not be the best choice for a retaining wall, or in applications that involve running water.
These different types of stone lend themselves to different applications. For example, because sedimentary rock is softer than igneous or metamorphic stone, it would not be the best choice for a retaining wall, or in applications that involve running water.


Much of the stone used in construction comes from [[quarries]], that exist as a part of mining for some other mineral, or are a source of a particular stone to begin with. The stone pulled from these chasms in the earth's crust is very "raw", and may be sent to a masonry to be refined or shaped, especially in the case with marble.
Much of the stone used in construction comes from [[quarry|quarries]], that exist as a part of mining for some other mineral, or are a source of a particular stone to begin with. The stone pulled from these chasms in the earth's crust is very "raw", and may be sent to a masonry to be refined or shaped, especially in the case with marble.

Revision as of 05:05, 19 October 2007

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Building structures from stone is the foundation of masonry. Stone has been used in structures for thousands of years. Although modern materials have become a dominant choice in the building and construction industry, stone still has a place for it's qualities of durability, beauty, and representation as an iconic material.

In geology, the materials from which building stones are obtained are genrally termed rocks. Rocks can come in three naturally different forms:

  • Igneous rocks comes from the cooling of magma, either at the earth's surface following a volcanic eruption or within earth's crust. Igneous rocks are often hard and non-porous.
  • Sedimentary rocks are often relatively soft compared to other types of rocks. Most come from sediments produced by erosion, which settled into layers, were compacted and lithified over time. An example of this kind of rocks is sandstone. Limestones instead formed by the precipitation of carbonates from seawater.
  • Metamorphic rocks are also often hard and non-porous but come from rocks that ware changed by pressure or heat at the contact with bodies of magma or deep in the crust. Marble is a distinct example of metamorphic rock, derived from the metamorphism of a limestone; in marbles, you can often see veins and folded dark horizons that formed during the plastic deformation of the parent limestone.

These different types of stone lend themselves to different applications. For example, because sedimentary rock is softer than igneous or metamorphic stone, it would not be the best choice for a retaining wall, or in applications that involve running water.

Much of the stone used in construction comes from quarries, that exist as a part of mining for some other mineral, or are a source of a particular stone to begin with. The stone pulled from these chasms in the earth's crust is very "raw", and may be sent to a masonry to be refined or shaped, especially in the case with marble.